EMPLOYEES: Do Employers Have to Give Employees Meal and Rest Breaks? Answer: It Depends
EMPLOYEES: Do Employers Have to Give Employees Meal and Rest Breaks? Answer: It Depends
Federal law says “no,” as the Federal Fair Labor Standards Act (“FLSA”) does not require employers to provide employees with meal or rest breaks. But, some state laws say “yes” and laws vary by state. In fact, some states require that employers not only provide meal breaks, but also require that employers make the employees take the meal break. Most states impose penalties on errant employers that fail to abide by the employer meal and rest break requirements.
|First, Lunch Breaks: California|
Per the California Department of Industrial Relations and Industrial Welfare Commission (“IWC”) Wage Orders in California, an employer may not employ an employee for a work period of more than five hours per day without providing the employee with a meal period of not less than thirty minutes, except that if the total work period per day of the employee is no more than six hours, the meal period may be waived by mutual consent of both the employer and employee. A second meal period of not less than thirty minutes is required if an employee works more than ten hours per day, except that if the total hours worked is no more than 12 hours, the second meal period may be waived by mutual consent of the employer and employee only if the first meal period was not waived. Labor Code Section 512. There is an exception for employees in the motion picture industry, however, as they may work no longer than six hours without a meal period of not less than 30 minutes, nor more than one hour. And a subsequent meal period must be called not later than six hours after the termination of the preceding meal period. IWC Order 12-2001, Section 11(A).
Unless the employee is relieved of all duty during his or her thirty minute meal period, the meal period shall be considered an “on duty” meal period that is counted as hours worked which must be compensated at the employee’s regular rate of pay. An “on duty” meal period shall be permitted only when the nature of the work prevents an employee from being relieved of all duty and when by written agreement between the employer and employee an on-the-job paid meal period is agreed to. The written agreement must state that the employee may, in writing, revoke the agreement at any time. IWC Orders 1 -15, Section 11, Order 16, Section 10. The test of whether the nature of the work prevents an employee from being relieved of all duty is an objective one. An employer and employee may not agree to an on-duty meal period unless, based on objective criteria, any employee would be prevented from being relieved of all duty based on the necessary job duties. Some examples of jobs that fit this category are a sole worker in a coffee kiosk, a sole worker in an all-night convenience store, and a security guard stationed alone at a remote site.
If the employer requires the employee to remain at the work site or facility during the meal period, the meal period must be paid. This is true even where the employee is relieved of all work duties during the meal period. Bono Enterprises, In. v. Bradshaw (1995) 32 Cal.App.4th 968.
If an employer fails to provide an employee a meal period in accordance with an applicable IWC Order, the employer must pay one additional hour of pay at the employee’s regular rate of pay for each workday that the meal period is not provided. IWC Orders and Labor Code Section 226.7. This additional hour is not counted as hours worked for purposes of overtime calculations.
In all places where employees are required to eat on the premises, a suitable place for that purpose must be designated. This requirement does not, however, apply to employees covered by IWC Order 16-2001, on-site occupations in the construction, drilling, logging and mining industries. For employees covered by IWC Order 16-2001, the employer must provide an adequate supply of potable water, soap, or other suitable cleansing agent and single use towels for hand washing.
Under all of the IWC Orders except Orders 12, 14, 15, and 16-2001, if a meal period occurs on a shift beginning or ending at or between the hours of 10 p.m. and 6 a.m., facilities must be available for securing hot food and drink or for heating food or drink, and a suitable sheltered place must be provided in which to consume such food or drink. Under IWC Order 12-2001 for employees in the motion picture industry, hot meals and hot drinks must be provided for employees who are required to work after 12 o’clock midnight, except off-production employees regularly scheduled to work after midnight.
And, here are Questions and Answers by The State of California:
|1.||What are the basic requirements for meal periods under California law? Under California law (IWC Orders and Labor Code Section 512), employees must be provided with no less than a thirty-minute meal period when the work period is more than five hours (more than six hours for employees in the motion picture industry covered by IWC Order 12-2001).Unless the employee is relieved of all duty during the entire thirty-minute meal period and is free to leave the employer’s premises, the meal period shall be considered “on duty,” counted as hours worked, and paid for at the employee’s regular rate of pay. An “on duty” meal period will be permitted only when the nature of the work prevents the employee from being relieved of all duty and when by written agreement between the employer and employee an on-the-job meal period is agreed to. The test of whether the nature of the work prevents an employee from being relieved of all duty is an objective one. An employer and employee may not agree to an on-duty meal period unless, based on objective criteria, any employee would be prevented from being relieved of all duty based on the necessary job duties. Some examples of jobs that fit this category are a sole worker in a coffee kiosk, a sole worker in an all-night convenience store, and a security guard stationed alone at a remote site.|
|2.||How does an employer satisfy its obligation to provide a meal period according to the law? An employer is not required to ensure that no work is performed. However, an employer must do more than simply make a meal period “available.” In general, to satisfy its obligation to provide a meal period, an employer must actually relieve employees of all duty, relinquish control over their activities, permit them a reasonable opportunity to take an uninterrupted 30-minute break (in which they are free to come and go as they please), and must not impede or discourage employees from taking their meal period. (For employees in the health care industry covered by IWC Orders 4 or 5, however, minor exceptions exist as to the employee’s right to leave the employment premises during an off-duty meal period.) Employers may not undermine a formal policy of providing meal periods by pressuring employees to perform their duties in ways that omit breaks (e.g., through a scheduling policy that makes taking breaks extremely difficult). As the California Supreme Court has noted, “The wage orders and governing statute do not countenance an employer’s exerting coercion against the taking of, creating incentives to forego, or otherwise encouraging the skipping of legally protected breaks.” Which particular facts in any given case will satisfy the employer’s obligation to provide bona fide relief from all duty may vary from industry to industry. See Brinker Restaurant Corp. v. Superior Court (2012) 53 Cal.4th 1004.|
|3.||What are the timing requirements for when any required first or second meal period must be provided during the workday? In general, when an employee works for a work period of more than five hours, a meal period must be provided no later than the end of the employee’s fifth hour of work (in other words, no later than the start of the employee’s sixth hour of work). When an employee works for a period of more than 10 hours, a second meal period must be provided no later than the end of the employee’s tenth hour of work (in other words, no later than the start of the employee’s eleventh hour of work). The foregoing rules are subject to certain waivers by mutual consent (as explained above), and different rules apply to employees in the motion picture industry. See Brinker Restaurant Corp. v. Superior Court (2012) 53 Cal.4th 1004.|
|4.||My employer is not allowing me to take a meal period. Is there anything I can do about this situation? Yes, there is something you can do if you are covered by the meal period requirements of the law. If your employer fails to provide the required meal period, you are to be paid one hour of pay at your regular rate of compensation (this is referred to as meal period premium pay) for each workday that the meal period is not provided. If your employer fails to pay the additional one-hour’s pay, you may file a wage claim with the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement.|
|5.||If there is bona fide relief from all duty during a meal period and the employer relinquishes all control over the employee’s activities, but the employee then freely chooses to continue working, is the employer liable for meal period premium pay? No, the employer would not be liable for meal period premium pay where there is bona fide relief from duty and relinquishment of employer control (and no discouragement or coercion from the employer against taking the meal period). However, in this circumstance, an employer that knows or has reason to know an employee is performing work during the meal period owes compensation to the employee for the time worked (including any overtime hours that accrued as a result of working through the meal period). See Brinker Rest. v. Sup. Court (2012) 53 Cal.4th 1004.|
|6.||Is it permissible if I choose to work through my meal period so that I can leave my job 30 minutes early? No, working through your meal period does not entitle you to leave work early prior to your scheduled quitting time. In order for an “on duty” meal period to be permitted under the Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders, the nature of the work must actually prevent the employee from being relieved of all duty, and there must be a written agreement that an on-the-job paid meal period is agreed to. And, the written agreement must also state that the employee may, in writing, revoke the agreement at any time.|
|7.||Can my employer require that I stay on its premises during my meal period? Yes, your employer can require that you remain on its premises during your meal period, even if you are relieved of all work duties. However if that occurs, you are being denied your time for your own purposes and in effect remain under the employer’s control and thus, the meal period must be paid. Minor exceptions to this general rule exist under IWC Order 5-2001 regarding healthcare workers. Pursuant to the Industrial Welfare Commission Wage Orders, if you are required to eat on the premises, a suitable place for that purpose must be designated. “Suitable” means a sheltered place with facilities available for securing hot food and drink or for heating food or drink, and for consuming such food and drink.|
|8.||I regularly work an eight-hour shift. What can I do if my employer doesn’t provide me with a meal period? You can either file a wage claim with the Division of Labor Standards Enforcement (the Labor Commissioner’s Office), or you can file a lawsuit in court against your employer to recover the premium of one additional hour of pay at your regular rate of compensation for each workday that the meal period is not provided.|
|9.||What is the applicable statute of limitations on filing a meal period claim In the case of Murphy v. Cole, the California Supreme Court held that the remedy for meal and rest period violations of “one additional hour of pay” under Labor Code section 226.7 is a wage subject to a three-year statute of limitations. Accordingly, a claim must be filed within three (3) years of the alleged meal period violation.|
Other States: Other states are not as strict as California. For example, Arizona does not require that employers provide employees with meal or rest breaks. Pennsylvania also does not require that, except for employees under the age of 18 if the worker works for more than 5 continuous hours. Less than half of the states require employers provide their employees with a meal or rest break, but for states that do require employees to provide meal breaks, employees who work for more than five or six hours at a time are typically allowed a half hour to eat.
If an employee is on a break, the employer does not have to pay them for that time unless the law of the state requires paid rest breaks. If the employee is not being paid for this time, it means that they must be completely relieved of all work duties. If the employee is answering phones, receiving deliveries or helping customers during their lunch break, then they have the right to be paid for that time.
If you would like to see the rest break laws for every state, they are listed on the Department of Labor’s website. Lunch and meal breaks are largely a function of state law, which means that each state will have slightly different laws. Make sure that you fully understand the specific laws for your state so that you can provide for your employees accordingly.
 Or sue, including under a class action representative claim for all similarly situated employees.
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